Details of processors
We will see, individually and in detail, all the details of the processors. This applies to both Intel and AMD processes, and in many cases it is also NVIDIA and even VIA, because after all the parameter is not the same in all cases and, therefore, it is compared. Let's go there
A product line is a group of products for the same purpose. For example, processors Xeon and Opteron Intel and AMD respectively are designed for servers, while Core i5 Mobile is for laptops. Currently, these are the product lines available (and applicable) on Intel and AMD:
- Intel: Core (i3, i5, i7 and i9), X Series, Pentium, Celeron, Xeon, Xeon Phi, Itanium, Atom, Quark SoC.
- AMD: Ryzen Threadripper, Ryzen Pro, Ryzen (3, 5 and 7), Athlon Pro, Series, A Series Pro, FX.
The code name is what separates the product lines. When previous improvements to the basic product line technology are received, it receives a new code name, and if the prefix is large enough (such as a new socket build), the line name is also changed. product.
As examples of these code names we have Haswell, Sandy Bridge, Bulldozer or Llano.
The processor socket is related to the physical connection to the motherboard. Most of the support names have a number of contacts in them, such as the Intel LGA1155 base with 1155 pins, and the 2011 base with the 2011 pin. Some are very confusing, such as AMD sockets (AM3, AM3 +, AM4, etc.) and in those cases the socket name doesn't give us details.
The production process
The manufacturing process specifies how small transistors are attached to the processor when it is made. This value is expressed in nanometers and denotes the fraction of the distance between memory cells within the CPU. You already know that we currently use 14, 10 and 7 nm processors a lot.
Number of cores (Cores)
Initially, processors produced by a single service do all the work, but over time they realized that only one could do all the work and because of the reduction of lithographs, they were able to integrate more and more cores inside the processors. Today, quad-core processors are the most commonly used, but Intel and AMD offer large amounts of cores and it is not uncommon to see processors with eight or more cores in domestic environments, capable of delivering a mysterious value such as 32- AMD Threadripper 3970X.
Each cores is a processor in its own right, and it allows them to perform many of the same tasks, although of course the operation of this process depends on the software.
Number of threads – Hyperthreading and SMT
If the processor has Hyperthreading in the case of Intel or SMT (Simultaneous Multi-Threading) in the case of AMD, it means that each of the repositories is able to perform two tasks simultaneously, known as process threads. Therefore, a stand-alone physical processor with Hyperthreading would have eight threads to process, and would be able to execute eight commands simultaneously. The number of threads is almost double that of the choruses.
Working Speed (Clock Speed)
Operating speed, clock speed or clock speed is also known as frequency, because it is measured by Hertz. This parameter represents the number of commands per second that the processor is able to process. For example, a processor running at 3 GHz means it can process up to 3,000,000,000 commands per second. So, if a task requires, say, 1,000,000,000 commands, the processor will be able to complete it in a third, while one that will run at 1 GHz will do that in a second.
That's a thought, but given the differences in the design of different processors, two processors with the same clock speed won't work at the same time, and this is the reason why Intel and AMD processors work with the same output even though they have the same number of cores and the same speed.
Turbo Boost and Turbo Core
Intel uses Turbo Boost technology, while AMD calls it Turbo Core, but they basically do the same: they are able to customize their cores to maximize performance when there is too much work. In advanced versions of this technology, this overkill can only be done in one of the cores, but at a faster rate than when they did it all.
The type of bus
The CPU bus type is how its cores communicate with the rest of the system. For the average user this does not affect the speed or performance of the system, but in most modern machines it is a visual one, and the new-generation buses are more efficient and faster than the previous ones. Right now, QPI (Quick Path Interconnect) is the most common one at Intel, and AMDs are called Hypertransport, but they are both going to Infiniband and infinity Fabric.
TDP – Heat Release
Thermal effect, also known as TDP or Thermal Design Power, is the maximum amount of dissipation energy required to keep the processor at high temperature. The upside of this is that, when the processor will release more heat, and as you know, we'll need a better heatsink to keep it at higher temperatures.
C1 L1, L2 and L3
Cache processors actually work in the same way as RAM: as temporary caching. However, because the cache is in the processor itself, it is very fast and the processor can access it properly, so the size of this memory can have a significant impact on performance, especially when doing heavy tasks.
The cache is divided into different access hierarchies:
- The L1 cache is the first place where the CPU will seek information, but it is also the smallest and fastest.
- The c2 of L2 is usually larger than L1 but slower. However, as a general rule, it has the greatest impact on performance.
- The L3 cache is much larger than the previous one, and is generally shared among all processor cores (unlike the previous ones, which are usually connected to the core). This third level is when the processor will search for information after missing it in L1 and L2, so its access time is far from over.
Smart Cache (or cache) is actually L3 but made Intel more efficient when sharing information on CPU cores. For practical purposes, it behaves exactly like the L3 cache. This parameter may not be available in all processor details.
Graphics, GPU or graphics processor
Many processors include a GPU internally, called integrated graphics or iGPU. It is usually very weak, but it is enough to perform basic tasks such as using the Internet, watching videos, and even some basic games, especially in later generations since they became very powerful.
These are, as a general rule, all technical specifications for Intel and AMD processors. However, if you have any doubts do not hesitate to suggest it in the comments.